To translate is defined as changing an oral or written text from one language into another. However, translating is not just the mere process of searching for the meaning of terms and idioms in different language vocabularies. Instead, it requires the ability to transpose entire cultural contexts from the source language/culture to the target one without losing focus on the text’s content, structure and on the effect that it has on its audience.

"Translation" is just a general term, though. It contains different subcategories which present their own features and require different translation techniques.

Where is it used? Literary translation is used within the genre of literature: from prose to poetry, from journal articles to academic texts and even within theatrical settings.
What are its main features? The texts present syntactic and grammatical structures, different registers and culture-bound elements from the source language.
What skills does it require?

  • Knowledge of different translation styles and techniques
  • Ability to pinpoint and deeply comprehend the style of the source text and the reality of the context from which it originates from
  • Attention to nuances in language and meaning
  • Ability to read, interpret texts and subliminal meanings
  • Knowledge of linguistic registers and socio-linguistic aspects of the target culture
  • Deep understanding of the needs and features of the target audience
  • Ability to write and rework written texts


Where is it used? It is used to translate multimedia and audiovisual products.

What are its main features? Two of its main and best known techniques are dialogue adaptation for dubbing and subtitling.

Where is it used? It is used for the translation of texts destined to become audiovisual products, like storylines and screenplays.

What are its main features? This type of translation presents features of literary translation and dialogue adaptation. It requires the translation of both the spontaneity of oral dialogues and of more elaborate descriptions, typical of narrative texts.

RestART professionals’ value constant teamwork, which enables in-depth cross-revisions. In this way, we will obtain a final product that, in literary translation, considers every possible subtext and nuance and, as far as technical translation is concerned, allows us to offer the client more precise and punctual work. Moreover, all members of the RestART team are specialised in different fields so that the association can offer a variety of translation services.